Incorporating
Source Use
DIRECT QUOTATION USE
(FROM TEXTBOOK/CLOUSE)

You can quote material that is difficult to paraphrase or that is expressed in a
particularly effective way.

a. Reproduce the author's exact words within quotation marks

b. Limit quotations to those times when something is so well expressed that you
wish to preserve the original wording.  (Do not overuse.)

c. Do not drop quotations. (Frame, Explain, Connect/Respond)


Conventions for Quotation Use

1. Use ellipses (three spaced periods) to indicate that something
in the original text has been left out.

Original Source ("Fan Profanity" on pg. 639, Patterns for a Purpose): Many
free-speech controversies, especially on college campuses, are grounded in
concerns for civility, politeness, and good taste.

Quotation: (quoting Wasserman's "Fan Profanity")
According to Howard M. Wasserman, "Many free-speech controversies . . . are
grounded in concerns for civility, politeness, and good taste" (639).


2. Use brackets to add clarification or to make changes needed to
work the quotation into your sentence.

Original Source:
The Hobson's Choice that Anderson believes this creates for fans- leave the arena
and stop attending games or tolerate offensive cheers - is precisely the choice
people make in any public place at which expression occurs.

Quotation (quoting Wasserman's "Fan Profanity"):
Wasserman says, "The Hobson's Choice [a seeming choice that really is no choice]
that Anderson believes this creates for fans - leave the arena and stop attending
games or tolerate offensive cheers - is precisely the choice people make in any
public place at which public expression occurs" (641).  


3. Use single quotation marks for a quotation within a quotation.

4. Reproduce italics that appear in the source.

5. Include a parenthetical citation and works cited entry.





Different Quotation Samples


In a film review of The Pursuit of Happyness, James Bernardinelli
suggests,  "It's tough to connect with Chris and his son."

According to James Bernardinelli,  "It's tough to connect with Chris and his son."

Bernardinelli says, "It's tough to connect with Chris and his son."

James Bernardinelli suggests that
"it's tough to connect with Chris and his
son."

The critic explains, "It's tough to connect with Chris and his son."
Resources:
from Patterns for a Purpose: pgs. 108 - 110
RECOGNIZING DROPPED QUOTATIONS
INTRODUCING QUOTATIONS